Today I’m debuting a series of posts on SQL Server best practices and lessons learned on flash. For those who joined my webinar last month, this will be a great next step in looking how to implement better practices for flash implementation. (If you missed the webinar, you can stream it here: https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/12587/185445)
Introduction: Optimizing vs. Conserving Power
By default, processors are configured for energy efficiency. For example, SanDisk® Fusion ioMemory PCIe application accelerators are shipped with energy conservation enabled. Windows Server is likewise by default configured to conserve power. Most Windows servers aren’t expected to deliver peak performance, as such settings makes sense in order to minimize energy costs—including not only what’s required to power the server, but also for cooling costs.
However, these default settings are undesirable for servers from which high performance is expected—and this is especially true for SQL Server servers—whether the storage is spinning media or flash.
The problem—not exploiting the performance that you paid for—is widespread. Results of a 2011 survey revealed that 56% of DBAs weren’t even aware of hardware power settings. It has long been a best practice for maximum performance to elevate default power settings, as summarized with supporting references in a post by my fellow MCM and current member of the Microsoft SQL Server Customer Advisory Team (SQL CAT), Cindy Gross (blog|twitter).
Optimizing Power for SQL Server: Overview
Optimizing power is not merely a best practice, but mandatory for servers from which high performance is expected.
Do so in these three separate locations: the BIOS, the Windows Control Panel, and ioMemory PCIe configuration settings:
The BIOS of contemporary servers are set to throttle the voltage delivered to processor cores. Even servers subjected to an apparently high workload may suffer from thousands of voltage fluctuations per second. Mitigation is simple:
Disable C-State/P-State settings
Maximize fan or cooling, if available
Note that not every BIOS will expose a separate setting for cooling.
Former Intel engineer & SQL Server expert Joe Chang has an amusing rant on this topic.
Windows Control Panel
Set Power Options to “High performance”. Do so in either of three ways:
Windows UI: Control Panel > Hardware > Power Options > High performance
Those using ioMemory PCIe application accelerators typically have a bias for maximizing their performance. To do so requires elevating the out-of-the-box power settings to 50W: fio-config –p FIO_EXTERNAL_POWER_OVERRIDE SN:MW
Where < SN > is the serial number of the card which can be obtained from the fio-status command, < MW > is the power in milliwatts, for example, the following configures the device with the given serial number to 50W.
The override command must be done for each card in the system and all cards must be done at once using the same command. That means that when adding a new card to the system and implementing power override, you must do so for all cards in a single command—the new one as well as pre-existing preconfigured cards.
A reboot is required.
The syntax must be exactly as described, with no spaces other than those shown.
Fusion-io ioMemory Generation 3 and Fusion ioMemory Generation 3.5 PCIe application accelerators are more efficient than previous generation hardware, yet our tests show that maximum performance requires this configuration change.
For more information, especially for details & caveats relevant to older hardware—PCIe application accelerators, servers, PCIe power availability, and power supplies—refer to the official support documentation for your card and driver version.
Trust but Verify
Whether installing brand new hardware or reconfiguring existing storage, always validate that you’re getting the performance expected. I’ll provide additional guidance in a forthcoming post.
To maximize performance for SQL Servers from which high performance is expected, it’s an essential best practice to maximize power. Do so by reconfiguring default settings found in the BIOS, in the Windows Control Panel, and on your SanDisk Fusion ioMemory card.
Best Practices for SQL Server on Flash: A brief overview of fundamentals as well as highlights requiring special attention.
SQL 2016 AlwaysOn Availability Group Performance Improvements: In SQL Server 2016, the network transport & log redo bottlenecks have been mitigated.
AlwaysOn AGs are now enterprise ready.
Consolidation on Flash: An idle CPU isn’t doing nothing—it’s burning licensing dollars. Move the I/O bottleneck to the CPU—where it belongs—& literally save hundreds of thousands of dollars per instance (with real-life case studies).
Solution Components: Review of SanDisk ioMemory application accelerators & Optimus MAX SAS SSDs.
Jimmy May is a SQL Server Certified Master and is a SQL Server Technologist for SanDisk Data Propulsion Lab.Jimmy was a Principal Architect in Microsoft IT and formerly a Senior Program Manager for the SQL Server Customer Advisory Team (SQL CAT) where he managed the Customer Lab which hosts the biggest, fastest, and most interesting SQL Server apps from around the world. His last day job was Senior Database Architect for one of the world’s largest, SQL Server high-throughput OLTP DBs. He was a founder & on the executive committees of both the Indiana Windows User Group (www.iwug.net) & Indianapolis Professional Association for SQL Server (www.indypass.org).His passion is “flipping the /faster bit”; his motto is “change the world or go home”. Visit his SQL Server performance and personal productivity blog at http://sqlblog.com/blogs/jimmy_may.